The study assessed determinants of maize production output among small-scale maize producers in Anambra State, Nigeria. Primary data were collected using a questionnaire, administered to 180 respondents, who were selected using purposive and simple random sampling techniques. Data collected were analysed using descriptive (frequency counts, percentages, and mean scores) and inferential (gross margin and multiple regression) statistics. The study reveals that the majority (67.2%) of the maize producers were male, with another majority (84.4%) having a household size range of 1 to 5, while 89.5% were between the ages of 31 and 50 years. Most (63%) were married, 54.4% attended secondary school and 77.8% made use of both hired and family labour. More than half (53.9%) of the maize producers rented land for production, while 79% either bought seed from the market or used previously harvested seeds. A greater proportion (65.0%) of the maize producers had an annual income of N 81,000 to N 120,000, while the majority (88%) had a farming experience of fewer than 10 years. The result on net farm income indicated an increase in profit for the maize producers that cultivated one-hectare using hybrid maize and recommended fertilizer rate. Although they incurred production costs of N 140,517, they made a profit of N 125,083 with a return on investment of N1.89. The explanatory variables such as planting hybrid maize, amount of fertilizer used, amount of pesticides used and the number of hectares planted were the major determinants of profitability (p<0.01). In addition, seed rate, amount of labour used, amount of herbicide, household size (p<0.05), early planting and use of animal manure (p<0.10) were also positively related to profit. Hence, to increase profit and ensure a high return on investment, the study recommends that subsidy should not stop at inputs such as fertilizer, rather more hybrid maize and extension agents’ assistance should be made readily available and accessible, to ensure adequate utilization of inputs in the right proportions.