Impact of drought stress on crop production and its management options
In the development of agricultural crops, biotic and abiotic stresses result in considerable yield losses. One of the main obstacles to agricultural production and global food security is abiotic stress. Stress is a word that refers to several biotic and abiotic environmental factors that prevent crop plants from reaching their full genetic potential. Drought is one of the fundamental issues in the current climatic environment and is one of the most severe abiotic stresses in many areas of the world. Plants experience moisture stress when their evapotranspiration requirements are not met. Drought has a negative impact on plant development and other metabolic processes, making it one of the most significant abiotic stresses and factors restricting the successful production of plant products globally. Drought is caused by a lack of water as a result of erratic rainfall or inadequate irrigation, but it can also be hampered by other elements such as soil salinity, physical characteristics, and excessive air or soil temperatures. Insufficient water supply throughout a crop's life cycle, including precipitation and the capability of the soil to store moisture, limits the crop's potential to produce the highest possible genetic grain yield. The most significant stressor that has a significant impact on crop development and productivity is without a doubt drought. For better management, it is crucial to comprehend the physiological, biochemical, and ecological actions connected to these stresses. It is possible to generalize morphological, physiological, and biochemical responses to a broad range of plant responses to this stress. Due to physical damage, physiological disruptions, and biochemical alterations, inadequate water supplies and abnormal temperatures have a severe impact on crop growth and yields. Drought stress reduces the size of the leaves, stem extension, and root proliferation within the soil; it also disturbs plant water relations and reduces water-use efficiency, which in turn reduces the plant's ability to yield; as a result, breeding for drought resistance is a good approach. This approach combines conventional and molecular methods to develop a drought-tolerant variety. Breeding more drought-tolerant cultivars may be more successful when selection is based on a thorough testing strategy. Practical implications for treatments and management result from a greater understanding of how plants react to this stress. High demand for drought-tolerant types would seem to be a difficult issue for plant breeders, but difficulties are aggravated by the difficulty of crop yield on a genetic and physiological basis. Food security is seriously threatened by drought, which is the main reason for agricultural loss worldwide. Plant biotechnology is currently one of the most promising areas for creating crops that can generate large amounts of food in moisture environments.