Review on: Mechanism of sensing and responding to excess light by higher plants
Plants are the basis for the survival of living things in nature. They can prepare their own food through photosynthesis. Hence, they are the bottom of food chain. Photosynthesis is the process by which plants use the energy from sunlight to produce sugar, which converts into energy (ATP), with the action of chlorophyll. Sun light meets two very important needs of biological organisms. First, the sun light maintains the planet’s surface temperature in a range suitable for life through the process of photosynthesis which produce energy that sustains life on earth. Second, sunlight also provides critical information about the environment information for proper plant development and the measurement of daylength that is used by plants to regulate movement. Plants absorb too much light more than they can actually use in photosynthesis. To prevent photo-oxidative/photo inhibition damage and to acclimate to changes in their environment, plants have evolved direct and indirect mechanisms for sensing and responding to excess light. Directly through photoreceptors such as Phytochromes, phototropin, neochrome, and cryptochrome relay signals for chloroplast movement and gene expression responses. Indirectly through biochemical and metabolic signals.